Alexander The Great


This is the latest date referred to in the canonical books of the Old Testament.    

Malachi, the last of the prophets, prophesied subsequent to this, and soon after. His precise period is unknown. His complaints of the irreligion of the Jews is evidence that they did not, after their restoration, comply with the conditions, on the observance of which, God had promised to make their restoration from Babylon a permanent one.  

A total eclipse of the sun occurred, August 3rd, in the first year of the Peloponnesian war, as recorded by Thucydides. B. C. 431.  

Darius Nothus. Artaxerxes Longimanus, according to Prideaux, was succeeded by his son, Xerxes, who was murdered at the end of forty-five days, by his brother, Sogdianus, who in turn was put to death by his brother, Ochus, having reigned but six months and fifteen days. The

 two brothers having reigned less than a year, their time is included, in Ptolemy's Canon, in that of Ochus. This prince changed his name to Darius, and is called by historians, Darius Nothus. His reign, including that of his brothers, according to the Canon of Ptolemy, continued nineteen years, to B. C. 404.  

Artaxerxes. He was succeeded by his son, Arsaces, who, on ascending the throne, took the name of Artaxerxes. From the wonderful memory that he possessed, he is called by the Greeks, Artaxerxes Mnemon, i. e., the rememberer. His reign, according to the Canon of Ptolemy, continued forty-six years, to B. C. 358.  

Ochus was his son and successor, and reigned, according to Ptolemy's Canon, twenty-one years, to B. C. 337.  

Arses. He was succeeded by his youngest son, Arogus, or Arses. He was murdered by Bagoas,-an Egyptian eunuch, who had also murdered Ochus, and all of Arses' brothers;-his reign, according to the Canon of Ptolemy, continued two years, to B. C. 335    

Darius. Bagoas, after the murder of Arses, placed on the throne Codomanus, a descendant of Nothus. On ascending the throne, he

 assumed the name of Darius, being the third of that name who occupied the Persian throne. In the second year of this Darius, Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont for the invasion of Asia; and, with only 30,000 foot, and 5000 horse, he encountered the Persian army at the river Granicus, and gained a victory over more than five times his number. In his third year, Darius, with an army of 600,000, was defeated by Alexander, at Issus, in Cilicia. The next year, Darius, with about a million of men, was defeated by Alexander, in the decisive battle of Arbela, and was soon after killed, having reigned, according to Ptolemy's Canon, four years, to B. C. 331.  

The battle of Arbela marks the end of the Persian, and the succession of the Grecian empire. The time of this battle is marked with absolute certainty; for Plutarch records an eclipse of the moon eleven days before that battle. By astronomical calculation it is found that the moon was eclipsed in the meridian of Arbela, on the night of September 20th, B. C. 331, and A. J. P. 4383; so that this battle must have been fought on the first of October of that year.   

Alexander. According to the Canon of Ptolemy, Alexander's reign continued eight years; but it is there dated from nearly a year previous to the battle of Arbela, and therefore it extends only to B. C. 324.  

Alexander was succeeded by his illegitimate son, Aridæus, who changed his name to Philip, and reigned, according to Ptolemy's Canon, seven years, to B. C. 317.  

After the death of Aridæus, the only one who bore the title of king was Alexander Ægus. He, however, possessed no power; for after the death of Alexander the Great, the governments of the empire were divided among the chief commanders of the army, who took the title of governors at first, but finally that of kings. Soon after they were settled in their provinces, they warred among themselves, till, after some years, all were destroyed but four-Casander, who had Macedon and Greece; Lysimachus, who had Thrace and the parts of Asia on the Hellespont and Bosphorus; Ptolemy, who had Egypt, Lybia, Arabia, Palestine,

and Cœle-Syria; and Seleucus, who had the rest of Alexander's dominion.  

"Porphyry tells us that Seleucus was made king of Syria by Ptolemy, when he came against Demetrius Poliorcetes, and that he then began to enlarge his dominions by conquest. His kingdom is dated from Olym. 117, y. 1. That year began at the new moon nearest the summer solstice, A. J. P. 4402." Dr. Jarvis. B. C. 312.


 1850 SB, ASC 152-1850 SB, ASC 155