Prophecy Fulfilled



I have already shown the connection between the visions of the eighth and ninth chapters of Daniel, with the one which succeeds, and occupies the remainder of the book. This last vision differs from those which preceded it, by being communicated directly by an angel; whereas, the former visions were presented first to his view, and then were explained by the angel. The former visions gave the great outlines of the events which were to take place in the world, together with the whole length of time for their accomplishment. This enters more into the particulars of those events, and divides the time into periods. The subject is one of thrilling interest, and demands the most serious attention of every believer in divine revelation. I shall take up this vision in the order in which it stands, commencing with the eleventh chapter, and give what I believe to be the meaning of each verse.  

Dan. xi. 1. "Also I, in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.  

"2. And now will I show thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all; and by his strength, through his riches, he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.  

"3. And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.  

"4. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled; for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those."  

Ver. 1. Also 1, in the first year of Darius the Mede. The angel here continues the discourse of the foregoing chapter, and announces to Daniel who he is; the same messenger who stood to strengthen him in the first year of Darius the Mede. Then he confirmed Daniel in the meaning of the former visions, by the vision of the seventy weeks.  

Ver. 2. There shall stand up yet three kings. Cyrus, the first Persian king, was then reigning. He was the individual spoken of by the prophet Isaiah, as the shepherd of God's people, whom he had surnamed; Isa. xliv. 28; also xlv. 1, 4. Three others were to rise after him. These were, 1. Cambyses, the son of Cyrus. 2. Smerdis, a usurper of the throne, and an impostor, who pretended to be another son of Cyrus. 3. Darius, the son of Hydaspes. "The fourth shall be far richer than, they all," etc. This was Xerxes, the son of Darius. His riches were inexhaustible. (See an account of him in Rollin's Ancient History.) He raised an army to go against Greece, of more than five millions of persons. But this vast and unwieldy army was able to effect but little, for the want of energy in their leader.  

Ver. 3. And a mighty king shall stand up. This mighty king was Alexander the Great. He ruled with great dominion, and did according to his will, none, even his most intimate friends, daring to counsel him at the peril of their lives. In about six years he conquered nearly the known world.  

Ver. 4. His kingdom shall be broken. He died B. C. 323, at Babylon. His wife Statira, was soon murdered by his other wife Roxana. His brother. Aridæus, and his wife Euridice, were killed by his mother Olympias, who was herself killed by the soldiers in revenge. His son, Alexander Ægus, and his mother Roxana, were slain by order of Cassander. Soon after, his other son, Hercules, and Barsine his mother, were murdered by Polysphechon. So that in fifteen years after his death, not one of his family or posterity were alive. His kingdom "shall be divided towards the four winds." The regal family being all dead, the governors of the provinces usurped the title of kings, and divided the kingdoms into four parts. 1. Seleucus inherited Syria, in the north; 2. Lysimachus had Persia in the east; 3. Ptolemy became master of Egypt in the south; 4. Cassander took possession of Greece in the west. Thus is kingdom was "plucked up for others beside those."

Ver. 5. "And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have a dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.

"6. And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement; but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.

"7. But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail."

Ver. 5. And the king of the south shall be strong. Ptolemy Lagus, one of Alexander's generals, became master of Egypt, and was strong. For in addition to Egypt and Lybia, he added also to his kingdom, Cyprus, Phœnicia, and Caria. The kingdom of Egypt was on the south of Judea, and that of Syria on the north.

And he shall be strong above him. The prophet here points out Seleucus Nicator, who should be Stronger than Ptolemy. In addition to Syria, he shall have several provinces of Asia Minor, Thrace, and Macedonia, before his death.

Ver. 6. And in the end of years. There is a considerable period here passed over in silence, concerning which no notice is taken.

The king's daughter of the south. Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, was married to Antiochus Theos, king of

 Syria. This marriage was entered into by these two kings, to terminate a bloody war which had been raging between them for about two years. Antiochus, to gain Berenice, agreed to put away his wife Laodice, and her children. This he did, Berenice, having brought him great wealth, all things for a time went on well.

But she shall not retain the power of the arm.

That is, her descendants shall not succeed to the government of Syria.

But she shall be given up. Antiochus having recalled his former wife, Laodice, and her children, she, to prevent his again recalling Berenice, procured his murder, and set her own son, Callinicus, on the throne of Syria.

And they that brought her. Her Egyptian women, who came with her, and strove to defend their mistress, were, many of them, killed.

And he that begat her; or, according to the margin, "he whom she brought forth." Both the mother and son were murdered by order of Laodice.

And he that strengthened her. Her father was excessively fond of her, and probably had, while alive, exerted a great influence favorable to his daughter. But he died some years before his daughter; so that he who had strengthened her was no more in the time of her calamity.

But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate. Ptolemy Euergetes, her brother, stood up in her father's estate. He, to avenge his sister's death, marched a great army against Callinicus, took, without a battle, all Asia from Mount Taurus to India. He took back with him to Egypt forty thousand talents of silver, many precious vessels, and two thousand five hundred images of their gods.

Verse 8: "And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.

"9. So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land."

He shall continue more years than the king of the north. Callinicus died in exile, by a fall from his horse, and Ptolemy lived some years after that.

So the king of the south. The king of Egypt, Ptolemy Euergetes, shall come into his (Seleucus's) kingdom, and shall return into his own land (Egypt.) He heard of a sedition which had taken place in his absence, and returned to suppress it. If it had not been for this, he probably would have entirely destroyed the kingdom of Syria.

Verse 10. "But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces; and one shall certainly come and overflow and pass through; then shall he return and be stirred up, even to his fortress."

"But his (Callinicus's) sons," (Seleucus Ceraunus and Antiochus.) And shall assemble a multitude of great forces. This was done by Ceraunus, to recover his father's dominions. But he being unable to pay his troops, they became mutinous and poisoned him.

And one shall certainly come. Seleucus being dead, Antiochus only was left to prosecute the war. He came and overflowed and passed through and regained Syria. He then returned and defeated Nicolaus, an Egyptian general; and came even to the frontier, or fortress of Egypt.  

Verse 11. "And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north; and he shall set forth a great multitude, but the multitude shall be given into his hand.  

"12. And when he hath taken away the multitude his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousand, but he shall not be strengthened by it.  

"13. For the king of the north shall return and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come, after certain years, with a great army and with much riches."  

Verse 11. And the king of the south (Ptolemy Philopater) shall come forth to fight with Antiochus, king of the north.  

These two kings met at Raphia, and a most terrible battle ensued. And he (Antiochus) set forth a great multitude. It is said his army amounted to sixty-two thousand foot, six thousand horse and one hundred elephants. But the multitude shall be given into his (Ptolemy's) hand. Ptolemy obtained a complete victory, and Antiochus was obliged to

 retreat to Antioch, from whence he sent to Ptolemy to solicit peace.

Verse 12. His (Ptolemy's) heart shall be lifted up. He became proud and luxuriant in his habits,

indulged in sensuality, and made a dishonorable peace. He shall not be strengthened by it. His people were dissatisfied with his conduct, and rebelled.

Verse 13. After certain years. Fourteen years after (Ptolemy Philopater being dead, and Ptolemy Epiphanes being a minor) Antiochus returned again with a larger army than before, and immense riches.  

We now come to a new era, when another power is about to be introduced, viz: "The robbers of thy people," (the Romans.)  

Verse 14. "And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south; also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall."  

And in those times (when Ptolemy Epiphanes is but a child) there shall many (Antiochus, king of, Syria, and Philip, king of Macedon) stand up against the king of the south. Antiochus and Philip both united to overrun Egypt and wrest it from its rightful king. Also the robbers of thy people (the Jews) shall exalt themselves. Just at this juncture in the affairs of Egypt, whilst those two powerful monarchs were meditating the entire subversion of the kingdom of a weak and helpless infant, "Providence," says Rollin, "raised up the Romans against them, who entirely subverted the kingdoms of Philip and Antiochus, and reduced their successors to almost as great calamities as those with which they intended to crush the infant king."    

To establish the vision. To this sentence I wish to call particular attention. The vision of the eighth chapter states that the little horn "waxed great" and magnified himself. Also, it gives the time when that power magnified himself,-in the latter part, of the four kingdoms of the goat, and when the transgressors were come to the full. This was now the case, B. C. 203; two of those horns, Syria and Macedonia, or their kings, formed the base, villainous design of destroying the dominion of a helpless infant king. Their cup of iniquity was now full and "the king of fierce countenance" stood up to punish them, by the subversion of their own kingdom. "To establish the vision" would be to make it sure. This the Romans did by rising up, as had been predicted, just when the transgressors had come to a full. They were also the fourth great

universal monarchy which had been so frequently shown Daniel in the preceding visions. The others had appeared, fulfilled their appointed time and work, and had fallen; but the vision would not be fully "established" until the Romans should appear to establish it. Nor then, indeed, until they had run their race, and the beast should be destroyed, and his body given to the burning flame. Therefore it is added-but they shall fall.  

Verse 15. So the king of the north. Syria had formerly been the king of the north; but now another power had subverted that kingdom, and exalted itself to establish (or finish) the vision, and thus make it sure.  

Shall come and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities. The Romans, from the time of Ptolemy Epiphanes had exercised almost a constant supervision of the affairs of Egypt, protecting them from assaults from other nations, settling their internal difficulties, and establishing the right of kings to rule. Ptolemy Auleutes, the successor of Alexander the Second, by his oppressive taxations excited the hatred of his subjects, and was driven from his throne and kingdom. His daughter Berenice was placed on the throne in his place. Ptolemy directed his course to Rome, and solicited their aid in recovering his kingdom. After a long discussion in the senate, he received letters from Pompey to Gabinius, a Roman pro-consul, who was at that time waging war in Syria. Through the influence of Pompey's letter, and the

 earnest advice of Mark Antony, one of his officers, he was induced to undertake the hazardous enterprise of recovering Egypt for Auleutes. He accordingly turned his arms against that country. He crossed the Euphrates, passed through Palestine directly to Egypt. Antony, who had command of the horse, preceded the main army, and seized on all the passes on the route, and secured them before the Egyptians were apprised of their danger. He also took Pelusium, the key of Egypt on that side, and secured the whole garrison. Thus the way was opened for the march of the whole army, without danger, into the heart of Egypt. This Roman army came from the north, Syria. They cast up a mount, or took, and fortified or secured, all the dangerous passes on the road, and also the garrison of Pelusium. They took the most fenced cities, throughout Egypt. The Egyptians, under Archelaus, made some resistance; particularly Archelaus distinguished himself by his valor. But "the arms of the south (for they had banished their king, therefore it is not said, as it used to be, the king of the south) shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand." Archelaus did what he could, but his army were so much accustomed to idleness and a voluptuous life, that they revolted from the labors and privations of the camp. And there was no power to withstand.  

Verse 16. "But the that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him." This is a correct description of the conquest of Egypt by Gabinius and Antony. "Egypt

was soon reduced and obliged to receive Auleutes, who took entire possession of his dominions." "Auleutes put his daughter Berenice to death for having worn the crown daring his exile. He afterward got rid, in the same manner, of all the rich persons who had been of the adverse party." "The Egyptians suffered all these indignities without murmuring." (See Rollin's Hist. vol. 8, pp. 113, 114.) So true was it that Auleutes when reinstated, did according to his will, as also did the Romans, who gave him back his kingdom.  

"And he shall stand in the glorious land which by his hand (the Romans) shall be consumed." Pompey, a Roman general, about 63 B. C., took Jerusalem, after a siege of about three mouths, demolished the walls of the city, and sent Aristobulus, king of Judea, and his two sons, Alexander and Antigonus, prisoners to Rome. He dismembered several cities from Judea, and annexed them to the government of Syria, and imposed a tribute on Hyrcanus, whom he had made, king in the place of Aristobulus. Alexander made his escape from Rome, returned to Judea, and excited new troubles. The Romans were called on by Hyrcanus, to aid him in maintaining his kingdom. Gibanus, Roman governor of Syria, overthrew Alexander in battle, went to Jerusalem, and changed the government from monarchical, as it had been, to aristocratical. About B. C. 54, the year after Aurelius was reinstated in his kingdom, Crassus, a Roman general, having heard that great treasures were laid up in the temple at Jerusalem, stopped in his march against the Parthians, and robbed the temple of all the riches in

 it, which amounted to £1,500,000 stealing. In short, after this time Judea became the scene of almost constant oppressions from the Romans, until it was finally destroyed. Rol., vol. 7, p. 292.  


Verse 17. "He shall set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom and upright ones with him." He-the Roman government, or one of the Roman consuls, for any general or consul, seems to be a representative of that government. The one who is now introduced is Julius Cæsar. After the battle of Pharsalia, between Julius Cæsar and Pompey, which resulted in the total defeat of the latter, Pompey fled into Egypt, where he expected protection from Ptolemy and Cleopatra, the joint sovereigns of Egypt, and children of Auleutes, to whom Pompey had been a great benefactor; but his ungrateful son, with words of peace and friendship on his lips, gave secret orders for his assassination. Cæsar followed Pompey into Egypt; but in order to expedite his journey he carried very few troops with him-only eight hundred horse and three thousand two hundred foot. Flushed with his success, he depended on his name for influence in Egypt. He made no scruples of landing at Alexandria, with the few people he had with him. He found, to his surprise, that Pompey was dead. The city of Alexandria, and indeed the whole kingdom, was in a state of confusion. A war was now waging between Ptolemy and Cleopatra, his sister, for

 the crown. This dispute Cæsar undertook to settle; but he soon found himself in difficulty, and involved in war. He was now in the heart of an enemy's country, and could not get away, he therefore sent immediately to Syria (for the Roman government is still king of the north) for all the Roman forces in that quarter. "He shall set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom." He raised all the troops within his power. "And upright ones with him;" "this shall he do." In addition to the Roman army in Syria, Cæsar sent into all the neigh boring countries for aid. He wrote amongst others to Calvinius, whom he had left in command of Asia Minor. That general immediately sent him two legions, one by land and one by sea. Mithridates, whom he sent to Syria and Cilicia, brought him troops which extricated him from all his troubles. He obtained the assistance of Antipater, who joined him with three thousand Jews; and, also he engaged several princes of Arabia, Cœlosyria, and the free cities of Phoenicia and Syria to send him troops. The country through which they were to pass, was full of dangerous passes, which had been seized by the Jews. On this account the whole enterprise well nigh miscarried. Through the influence of Antipater, letters were obtained from Hyrcanus to the Jews, to favor Cæsar's party. When this news spread, the passes were opened for the army, the Jews of Memphis, and other places, supplied them not only with men but provisions and all other assistance in their power. These troops, after several severe struggles and contests, entered Egypt, and finally subjected it to Cleopatra's reign. And upright ones with him. The Jews were the instruments of that victory. If they had refused their assistance and maintained their passes, it must have been fatal to the Romans. Ptolemy, when this army were about entering Egypt, met them near Delta, where a severe battle took place. Victory declared on the side of the Romans, and Ptolemy, in attempting to pass the Nile in a boat, was drowned. Thus the Roman government "set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom and upright ones (Jews, or people of God,) with him."  

"And he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her." Cleopatra and a young brother were now, by Cæsar, placed jointly on the throne of Egypt. But this was, in effect, giving the crown to Cleopatra, Ptolemy being so young as to have no influence in the affairs of the kingdom. The passion (says Rollin) which that prince (Cæsar) conceived for Cleopatra was the true cause of his undertaking that dangerous war. He passed whole nights in feasting with Cleopatra; and, as the fruit of their nightly banquets; he had a son by her, whom he called Cæsarion. This was the commencement of that licentious and corrupt course which Cleopatra afterwards pursued with Mark Antony. "He (Egypt) shall give him (Cæsar) the daughter of women (Cleopatra) corrupting her." In these debauches with Cleopatra he spent the time from January to April, although his affairs were settled by the last of January. A long time for a Roman consul to spend in idleness.  


"But she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him." Cæsar left Egypt, and engaged in a war with the Cimmerian Bosphorus. Cleopatra, after Cæsar left Egypt, put Ptolemy, her brother, to death. She did not stand on Cæsar's side, but disregarded his decisions in regard to the kingdom. After the death of Cæsar, she declared for the triumvirs, seduced Antony by her charms, and kept him in her power to the time of his death. "Neither be for him."

Verse 18. After this he (Cæsar) shall turn his face unto the isles, (the Cimmerian Bosphorus) and shall take many." He defeated Pharnaces in several battles, and finally drove the last king of Pontus from his kingdom. These conquests were so rapid that Cæsar described them thus: "I came, I saw, I conquered." His glory was now at its height, and he determined on nothing short of the crown and throne of Rome.  

"But a prince of his own behalf (a Roman, Brutus,) shall cause the reproach offered by him (to the Roman people) to cease; (by assassinating him in the senate,) without his (Brutus's) own reproach shall he cause it, (the reproach of Cæsar to Rome) to turn upon him." The history of Cæsar's death is so familiar that I need not dwell upon it. Suffice it to say, after his conquest of Pharnaces, he returned to Rome, where a triumph was decreed him. He then determined to usurp the throne of Rome. This was too much for the master spirits of the age to endure, and they determined on his death, which was accomplished by the hand of Brutus, in the senate of Rome. Thus was fulfilled verse 19. "Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land, (Rome;) but he shall stumble and fall (just at the height of his glory) and not be found."    

Verse 20. "Then shall stand up in his estate, a raiser of taxes, in the glory of the kingdom." The successor of Julius Cæsar was Octavius Cæsar, afterwards called Augustus Cæsar. He stood up in the estate of Julius in the glory of the kingdom. Rome, in his day, obtained the height of its power. All the four kingdoms into which Alexander's was divided at his death, had become tributary to Rome. Egypt was the last, and this was subdued by Augustus, after the death of Cleopatra, about B. C. 30. He was emperor of Rome when Christ was born; and issued a decree (Luke ii. 1) that all the world should be taxed. This emperor died, peaceably, in his bed, "neither in anger, nor in battle."  

Verse 21. "In his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honor of the kingdom; but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries." The successor of Augustus was Tiberius Cæsar; and the text is a literal prophetic history of his character, exaltation and reign. He obtained the kingdom by flattery; but once exalted, he let the world understand and feel his power. He was a base tyrant, and ruled arbitrarily those whom be subjected by flatteries.  

Verse 22. "And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant." It was in the twenty-second year of the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, that Christ was broken, or put to death.  

This ends one grand division of the prophecy, viz. the seventy weeks of Daniel for the cutting off of the Messiah. Thus far we have seen a literal fulfilment of the prophecy. The angel now commences a new series of events which were to end only with the destruction of the man of sin and the deliverance of God's people. The prophecies of Scripture all tend to two grand points as their centers, viz. the first and second coming of Christ. The first part of this vision points out the first coming of Christ. That event having been pointed out, and the people by whom the death of Christ was accomplished having been fully settled, the angel returns to the time of their first connection with the people of God, in order to present all their oppressions exercised toward the Church, until the end, when the beast should be destroyed and his body given to the burning flame. To this event, and the time of its accomplishment, the angel conducts us.  

Ver. 23. "And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully; for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people." The parties, the league between whom is here spoken of, demand

attention. One of the parties must be Rome, because that power had just been the subject of prophecy, and no intimation had been given that another power had taken its place. The angel informs Daniel, (chap. x. 14,) "Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days; for yet the vision is for many days."    

As yet, but little reference has been made to the people of God, or the Jews, except the breaking of the prince of the covenant. The angel is now about to give their connection with the Romans, the power which was to continue, to the end, to oppress them. The first league ever made between the Jews and Romans, was that related by Josephus, (Ant. b. xii. chap. x.) to which the reader is referred. The Grecians were at war with the Jews, and greatly oppressed and afflicted them. Bacchiades, a Grecian general, left off to trouble the Jews, at the command of the Romans, after this league. And, after this, the Grecians never more returned to vex and trouble the Jews. The time when Bacchiades thus left off to trouble them, was B. C. 158. From that time the Romans began to work deceitfully, and gradually to gain an ascendency over the Jews, until at length they became tributary to Rome, and were governed by high priests and: kings appointed by the Roman government. "For he shall come up, and become strong with a small people." Rome was, in its beginning, a small republican people, but about the time of this league, they had become the most formidable of any nation then in existence, and all kingdoms stood in fear of them.  

Ver. 24. "He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the provinces; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches; yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time." Rome is said to have done more towards the conquest of the world by her policy and craftiness than she did by her arms. Scattering the prey and spoil was one of her favorite modes of conciliating the feelings of her most inveterate foes. But when they could not be won over to Roman interests in this way, the sword decided the case.    

That which his fathers have not done. The Jews never before had set down peaceably under rulers appointed by a heathen government. But this they did under the Roman government, to which they were tributary.  

Ver. 25. "And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand, for they shall forecast devices against him." Mark Antony was the principal instrument in restoring Egypt to Ptolemy Auleutes. He returned to Rome, and after the death of Julius Cæsar he was one of the triumvirs who engaged to avenge his death. Cleopatra espoused their interest, and used all her arts to captivate Antony, as she had done Julius Cæsar, and in this she succeeded but too well. She captivated him by her charms, and afterward contrived to hold him in her silken chains. Antony, previous to leaving Rome, had married Octavia, the sister of Octavius Cæsar. He for a season had a great share in the government of Rome jointly with Cæsar. After he became so completely enamored by Cleopatra; that he found himself unable to escape her toils, he sent his divorce of Octavia to Rome, and threw himself on Cleopatra for protection and support. He had now identified his interests with Cleopatra's, and might be said to be king of the south. Cæsar, exasperated at Antony's treatment of his sister, swore revenge, and stirred up his power and courage with a great army to avenge his sister's wrongs. In this war Cæsar had two hundred and fifty ships and eighty thousand foot, with as many horse. He stirred up his courage with a great army. But Antony and Cleopatra's army was a very great army. It consisted of five hundred ships, two hundred thousand foot, and twelve thousand horse. The kings of Lybia, Cilicia, Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, Conragenia, and Thrace, were there in person; and those of Pontus, Judea, Lycaonia, Galatia, and Media had sent their troops. A more splendid and pompous sight, (says Rollin,) could not be seen, than this fleet, when it put to sea and had unfurled its sails.

75But nothing equalled the magnificence of Cleopatra's galley, all flaming with gold; its sails of purple, its flags and streamers floating to the wind, whilst trumpets and other instruments of war made the heavens resound with airs of joy and triumph.  

Antony followed her close, in a galley equally splendid. These armies were prevented by bad weather from coming to action; and both put into winter quarters until the next year, when both armies took the field, both by sea and land. The battle was fought by sea, at the mouth of the Gulf of Ambracia, in sight of both land armies, drawn up in battle array, expecting the event. For some time the contest was doubtful, and seemed as much in favor of Antony as Cæsar, till the retreat of Cleopatra. She became frightened at the terrible noise of the battle, and fled. She drew off with her the whole Egyptian fleet, and sailed for the coast of Peloponnesus. Antony saw her flying, and forgetting even himself, followed her, leaving the field, which until now he had bravely and well contested, to Cæsar. "But he shall not stand, for they shall forecast devices against him." Thus Antony, by the device, or flight, of Cleopatra, was ruined, but especially by her treachery, after their return to Egypt.    

Ver. 24. "Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow; and many shall fall down slain." After the battle at sea, the land army remained entire, two hundred thousand foot, and twenty-two thousand horse. These might have made head against the Romans; but seeing themselves abandoned by their

generals, they surrendered to Cæsar, who received them with open arms. Antony went from Tanarias to Lybia, where he had left a considerable army. But on his landing, he found that Scarpas, whom he had left in command, had declared for Cæsar. Thus they that fed of his meat destroyed him, and his army overflowed. Also in the battle at sea many on both sides fell down slain.  

Verse 27. "And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed."    

The kings here spoken of, were Cæsar and Antony. They for a season were united in the government of Rome. They both, however, were false and treacherous. They both spoke lies for a season, at one table. They both contemplated the universal extension of the Roman kingdom or empire of Rome. And that when this was once accomplished, Rome would endure forever. "But it shall not stand; for at the time appointed the end will come." Rome will fall and be given to the burning flame.  

Verse 28. "Then shall he return into his own land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land."    

After the defeat of Antony he went to Egypt after Cleopatra. Thither he was followed by Cæsar. After some desperate engagements, Antony was betrayed by Cleopatra, also his own troops deserted him; and in the madness of his grief, he went to the palace to be avenged on   Cleopatra for her perfidy. She, for-seeing what would happen, had shut herself up, and caused Antony to be told, that preferring an honorable death to a shameful captivity, she had shut herself up among the tombs of her fathers and had killed herself. Antony believing the report, determined on putting an end to his own life. He went and shut himself up with his servant, and causing his armor to be taken off, commanded the servant to plunge his dagger into his breast. But being full of affection for his master, he stabbed himself with it and fell dead. Antony looking upon this as an example for him, thrust his sword into his body and fell upon the floor in a torrent of blood. Cleopatra after all her treachery toward Antony, when she found what was done, ordered every effort to be made to restore him; she even with her own hands drew him up at a window; and he died is her arms. Cæsar afterward found means of taking Cleopatra alive, and intended carrying her to Rome to adorn his triumph. But Cleopatra could never stoop to that, and obtained an aspic, by the bite of which she ended her days. Cæsar now held Egypt, the last of the four horns of the he goat, in his own power; and returned to Rome, with all the wealth of Egypt at his command. "Then shall he return to his own land with great riches." This was B. C. 30. The next exploit of importance which Rome should do, would be against the holy covenant. "His heart shall be against the holy covenant." Christ was condemned by the Roman government to be

 crucified, and Jerusalem was destroyed and the Jews dispersed into all lands. "And return into his own land." After Jerusalem was destroyed, the Romans again returned to their own land.  

Verse 29. "At the time appointed he shall return and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former or as the latter."  

In the fourteenth verse, we read of the exaltation of Rome or the robbers of Daniel's people; and also of their fail. That time has now arrived; accordingly we are informed, "at the time appointed he shall return." In the former verse, the Roman power returned to their own land from Jerusalem. But the time of their fall has come, and they return by the same route by which they went home from Jerusalem, toward the south, (Egypt.) The text does not intimate that they shall go to the south, but toward it. This I think was the removal of the seat of government from Rome to Constantinople; on the land route from Rome to Jerusalem and Egypt. In Constantinople the Roman government lived long after Rome was taken and overrun by the northern barbarians. But it shall not be as the former; Julius Cæsar's going to Egypt in pursuit of Pompey, and subduing Egypt for Cleopatra.

Nor as the latter; Octavius Cæsar's going to Egypt in pursuit of Antony, and subjecting Egypt to a Roman province. The Romans shall not go

with a victorious army to Egypt; but simply remove the seat of government from Rome to Constantinople. This event took place before the death of Constantine, and before A. D. 350.  

Verse 30. "For the ships of Chittim shall come against him; therefore he shall be grieved and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant; so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant."  

For the ships of Chittim shall come against him. 'The Huns, who lived on the north of the Adriatic Sea, a place which, (says Mr. Miller) was anciently called Chittim, will ravage the Roman empire under their leader Attila. Bishop Lloyd, in his chronology, states that the Huns entered and established their kingdom in the Roman empire, A. D. 356. Their kingdom was the first of the ten kingdoms into which the Roman empire was divided. They settled in Hungary. The Longobards, or the Lombards, settled in the north of Germany, A. D. 483. Within that time, the Roman empire in the west was completely overrun by the northern barbarians, and divided into ten separate kingdoms. Those ten kingdoms, as given by Machiavel the historian, and the time of their settlement, as given by Bishop Lloyd, I will here introduce. 1. The Huns in Hungary,

A. D. 356. 2. The Ostrogoths in Mysia, A. B. 377. 3. The Visigoths in Pannonia, A. D. 378. 4. The Franks in France, A. D. 407. 5. The Vandals in Africa, A. D. 407. 6. The Sueves and Alans in Gascoigne and Spain, A. D. 407. 7. The Burgundians in Burgundy, A. D. 407. 8. The Heruli and Rugii or Turingi in Italy, A. D. 476. 9. The Saxons and Angles in Britain, A. D. 476. 10. The Lombards on the Danube in Germany, A. D. 483. Here we have the concurrent testimony of one of the best or most correct historians, and one of the best informed chronologists, as to what the ten original kingdoms were, into which western Rome was originally divided. These were the tea trees of Nebuchadnezzar's image, and the ten horns of Daniel's dreadful beast, or John's dragon. The seat of government, or the metropolis of the empire, was removed to Constantinople in the former part of the fourth century. A. D. 356, or just after the middle of the century, the ships of Chittim or the Huns, came and settled, and established their kingdom in the Roman empire; and other kingdoms soon followed. The metropolis was removed by Constantine from Rome to Constantinople. Still the Roman empire was unbroken. After his death, it was divided between his three sons, Constantius, Constantine the Second, and Constans. Constantius possessed the east, and fixed his residence at Constantinople, the new metropolis. Constantine the Second held Britain, Gaul, and Spain; Constant,

Illyricum, Africa, and Italy. The two latter quarrelled, and Constans

 being victor, annexed the dominions of his brother to his own; but he enjoyed it but a few years, before he also was slain by one of his own commanders. This rebel, however, after being defeated in a war with Constantius, in the rage of despair ended his own days. The empire was now again united under Constantius for the last time. This was A. D. 353. As we have already seen, the Huns began the division of the empire in A. D. 356, three years after its reunion under Constantius. (See Sabine's Eccl. His. p. 155.  

Therefore he shall be grieved and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant. During the reign of Constantine, persecution of Christians had ceased, and Christianity was not only tolerated but received the support of the Roman government. The church was divided on the subject of the Arian heresy. The two leading champions in this, controversy, were Athanasius on the part of the orthodox, and Arius in support of his own opinions. Many synods and councils were held, in which great warmth of feeling was excited. The orthodox party being the strongest, Arius and many of his followers were at length banished. He was after some years restored, through the influence of Athanasius, and he in his turn was banished. Arius found means to ingratiate himself into favor with Constantine, and after subscribing the Nicene creed, (although as is believed he did it hypocritically,) Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, was ordered by the emperor to receive him into the communion. But on the

 day fixed for his restoration to the church, as his party were attending him with great parade, he was taken suddenly ill, and died. But the controversy did not end here. After the death of Constantine, and under the reign of Constantius, the Arians were in favor at court, and the orthodox were exposed to persecution. The Huns also were ravaging the empire during that and succeeding reigns. The Christians, conceiving it to be a judgment of God, sent on the empire for their sins, refused to bear arms. The persecution of the orthodox Christians from these sources, became very severe, even in the time of Constantius. The Roman government had indignation against the holy covenant. But under Julian the apostate, he who had promised so much for the Christian cause, idolatry was revived, and the laws in favor of Christianity were repealed. The emperor Julian had forsaken the holy covenant, and he carried with him many others of a similar character. The reign of Julian was short, but he accomplished much evil for the Christian cause. He is said to have been educated a Christian, and at one time to have been a reader in the church, also that he was under the care and instruction of the clergy. But no sooner had he ascended the throne, than he showed his predilection in favor of idolatry. He ordered the heathen temples, which had been shut during former reigns, to be opened, and those which had been demolished, to be rebuilt. Christianity was unhinged from its civil establishment, and paganism raised to a level with it. He attacked Christianity with the keen shafts of ridicule, and always designated Christ as the Galilean, and called Christians after the name of their master. His influence, so far as it was exerted at all in favor of Christians, was toward the Arian party. Thus he had intelligence with them which forsake the holy covenant. All through the period of the fall of Rome, and the rise of popery, Christians were persecuted both by the pagans and Arians. The barbarians of the north were pagans, and wherever they gained power, the Christians felt its influence.  

Verse 31. "And arms shall stand on his part." "Arms" signifies power. The Roman government under Julian became a supporter of paganism, and arms, or the power of the government, was in favor of pagan worship. But after the death of Julian, Christianity was again restored, and received the countenance of the emperors.  

And they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength. The sanctuary of strength was the city of Rome. They refers to the kings of the Heruli and Rugii, who subdued and settled in Italy, A. D. 476. It is said, when Rome was taken by those barbarous kings, human sacrifices were offered in the city, to their supposed deities. Thus the sanctuary of strength, where Christianity had so long been planted, and where it was destined to be established as its common centre, even there the abominations of human sacrifices were offered up to pagan gods. Let it be kept in remembrance, that the ten kingdoms before named, which had settled in the western Roman empire, were all pagans. But the time has come for a change to take place. "They shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate." The last of those kingdoms, that of the Lombards, was established A. D. 483. In A. D. 496, Clovis, king of France, being engaged in a war, made a vow to the God of Christians, that if he would render him victorious, he would become a Christian. Victory declared on the side of Clovis; and he and three thousand of his subjects were baptized into the Christian faith. The conversion of Clovis; gave rise to the titles, "most Christian king," and "eldest son of the church." Soon after this, the other kings finding it to be for their interest to gain the influence of the clergy, embraced the Christian faith and were baptized; the last of them in A. D. 508.  

I must here refer the reader to the second chapter, for a full proof that "daily sacrifice," means the daily sacrifices or abominations of paganism in the Roman empire.

We have now arrived to a period, and an event, when paganism in the empire received its deathblow, by the conversion of those pagan kings. Some vestiges of paganism did, of course, exist in the empire after this, but I know of no account of pagan sacrifices being offered, after that, in the city of Rome, "the place of his (paganism's) sanctuary." Nor did it ever recover much strength or influence any where in the bounds of the western Roman empire. Thus, in A. D. 508, paganism, or the daily abomination of paganism ceased in the Roman empire. And it was taken away, too, by those pagan kings who conquered Rome. But the time had not yet fully come for the "man of sin" to be revealed. Those

 kings, although they had embraced Christianity, and gave their support to the pompous ceremonies of the Roman religion, yet they were most of them Arians in sentiment, and bitter opposers to the orthodox faith. They set up one of the abominations which have corrupted and made desolate the Christian Church, viz. the Arian heresy, the spring from whence arose open infidelity. Afterward they also lent their influence, as we shall hereafter see, to establish and support "the man of sin," the papal hierarchy. But the ten horns of the Roman beast were not to continue long in their first or original state, but they were to "receive power as kings (St. John says) in one hour with the beast." That is, the ten horns, or kingdoms, will be pagan, and their influence as kings, for a short time, will be in favor of the paganism of the great and dreadful beast of Daniel. Then after them was to rise another little horn, before whom three of the first horns should be plucked up by the roots. This little horn is the abomination that maketh desolate. These kings were, three of them, to be plucked up, to make way for the abomination which maketh desolate. What the three kingdoms were which were plucked up before the little horn, to make way for him, has been a matter of doubt. Mr. Faber's opinion, however, looks the most rational of any, that the three horns must be sought for among the ten original kingdoms into which the empire was divided. One of them at least must be found in Italy, for that kingdom must be the seat of the little horn. The Heruli settled in Italy, A. D. 476. But they did not long enjoy their conquests, for in A. D. 493, Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, or Goths, as they are also called, leading his troops from Mesia, their original settlement, made a descent from the

 Julian Alps upon Italy, displayed his banner, conquered the Heruli, and was accepted as the deliverer of Rome, both by the senate and people. Here, then, we find one of the little horns plucked up by the roots, and it is not, nor has it ever again been restored. The Goths, however, stood in the place of the Heruli, to hinder the full establishment of popery.    

The Vandals had settled in Africa, A. D. 407. Of this kingdom they had maintained the supremacy until the reign of Justinian, emperor of Constantinople. Under the Vandal government, the catholic, or orthodox Christians, had endured much persecution.

After the conversion of their king to Christianity, he was only an Arian, and continued to oppress and persecute the catholics. Helderic at length ascended the throne. He was mild in his disposition and policy toward his catholic subjects. His accession to the throne was marked by a salutary edict, which restored two hundred bishops to their churches, and allowed the free profession of the Athanasian creed. But this was so far short of the pretensions of the catholics that they accepted the favor with coldness. On the other hand, his people were offended, and the Arian clergy were displeased that he had done so much. Helderic soon sunk from a throne to a dungeon. Gelimer, an officer of age and experience, now assumed, the throne with the consent of the nation. Justinian now undertook the deliverance of

Helderic, but all his demands were vain. At length he determined, on the pretext of liberating a captive monarch, to invade Africa. The command of the invading army was given to Belisarius, as the lieutenant of Justinian. His expedition resulted in the conquest of the Vandal kingdom to the Roman empire under Justinian. Gelimer, however, had given orders before he went out to the fatal battle, in case of defeat to put Helderic to death before he could be delivered by the Romans. This order was faithfully fulfilled. Carthage was now once more united to the Roman empire. The second of the ten horns was now plucked up by the roots, and the catholic religion became predominant in the empire. This was in A. D. 533. But the conquest was not complete until the king should be taken, either dead or alive. This was accomplished in the spring of 534. The conquest of Africa was now complete, and Belisarius returned to Rome. In the same year, also, Justinian adopted his code of laws, among which was one declaring the Bishop of Rome "the head of all the churches." See Justin. Novell. Lit. 14. Constitut. Cap. 2. This decree of Justinian I will insert for the satisfaction of those who may wish to see it.  

"Sancimus secundum carum (soil. sacrarum synodarum) definitiones, sanctissimum senioris Romæ Papam primum esse omnium sacerdotum: beattissimum autem archiepiscopum Constantinopoleos novæ Romæ secundum habere locum post sanctam apostolicam senioris Romæ sedem: aliis autem omnibus sedibus præponatur."  

This constituted the bishop of Rome head of all Churches. But as yet the Roman see was in the hands of a power hostile to the ambitious designs of the pope of Rome. One of the three horns remains as yet to be plucked up before him. That kingdom was the Gothic, in Italy. But after this kingdom had stood its appointed time, it was attacked by Belisarius and reduced again to Roman government. The city was taken or entered by Belisarius Dec. 10, A. D. 536. But the war did not end here. The Goths collected their forces, and the next year besieged Rome for the purpose of retaking it. This siege was severe for the citizens of Rome, and it came well nigh being reduced to surrender to the barbarians; but after about a year's siege, and enduring the almost incessant sallies of Belisarius, the Goths raised the siege, and left Italy in the quiet possession of the Roman general. This took place in March, A. D. 538. 1  

Rome was now again united to the Roman empire. The beast had received his deadly wound by the sword of the barbarians, and that deadly wound was again healed, and the Roman beast once more "lived" in the west. The three horns or kingdoms out of the ten, had been plucked up by the roots before the little horn. The laws of Justinian had declared the bishop of Rome head of all the churches, and he that letted or hindered, "Paganism" and "Arianism," were taken out of the way. Nothing now stood in the way of the full revelation of "the man of sin, the son of perdition." The saints were now formally given into his hand. The decree by which it was done was made 534, and the conquest of Italy was undertaken, to subdue the Arians and give the catholic religion the supremacy. Therefore I can but consider A. D. 538, the time when the Goths raised the siege and abandoned all hope of recovering Rome, as the true time when the saints were given into the hand of the little horn, and the "time, times and a half," commenced. The abominations of Paganism now had been taken away and the abomination that maketh desolate set up. Now was about to commence the long conflict between the true church and the mother of harlots The Pope is head of all churches, and begins to assert his claims.  

Verse 32. "And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall be corrupt with flatteries; but the people who do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits."  

Such as do wickedly against the covenant. The covenant is the gospel. It is the new covenant which God has made with the Christian church (See Hebrews viii, 6-13.) Against the spirit and precepts of the gospel, some, even in the church, and those, too, who professed the orthodox faith, did wickedly. Those were corrupted by the pretentions of the Pope and consented to grant him his claim to supremacy.

But the people who do know their God. Those who were truly pious in the church, warmly opposed his impious pretensions; this they did publicly and privately, at the risk of their lives.  

Verse 33. "And they that understand among the people shall instruct many; yet they shall fall by the sword and by flame, by captivity and by spoil many days." The expression, "people," is worthy of note. The Pope and Romish hierarchy have proclaimed themselves the only true church, and all who do not assent to their pretensions, are base heretics. The church is corrupt, and the pious are found out of the church or among the people. They did what they could to perpetuate the pure principles of the gospel, and were instruments of good. But the Roman pontiff and his abettors soon let them feel and know that they could not dispute with impunity his claim to supremacy in the church. Persecution ensued, and Christians felt all the horrors of papal persecution many days. At this time, the church fled into the wilderness from the face of the serpent.  

Verse 34. "Now, when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with, a little help; but many shall cleave to them with flatteries."  

After the popish pretensions had been established, and the papal persecutions had raged so as to drive the church into the wilderness, the poor people of God were occasionally holpen with a little help. Such was the reign of Gregory in the Roman see. He had a pious and feeling heart. Under him persecutions ceased, and he denounced pretensions to the title of universal bishop, as the forerunner of anti-christ. He engaged heartily in the work of spreading the gospel among the nations of the earth. But after his death there was but little abatement of persecution, in some shape, against real Christianity for a long period.  

Many shall cleave to them, etc. At the time when pure religion received support from Gregory,

and the true church received a little help, many hypocrites insinuated themselves in among them, and clave to them.

Verse 35. "And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white even to the time of the end; because it is yet for a time appointed."

This verse gives the recommencement of persecution against the saints, for the purpose of trying those who cleave to them with flatteries. They were only stony ground hearers, and when persecutions came because of the word, they were offended and went out from the true church; and in this way, by persecution, the true church of Christ was kept pure, through the long night of papal rule.  

To the time of the end. The time when the civil power of the papal horn was taken away. "Because it is yet for a time appointed." That time was given, chapter vii, 25, "a time, times, and the dividing of a time." The meaning of a time is a year; times, two years, and the dividing of a time, half a year;-the whole, three years and a half. If it be asked, how do we know that this is the meaning? I answer, in Revelation the same time is mentioned, and in relation to the same event. It is there called sometimes a time, times and a half; sometimes "forty-two months," the same as three and a half years, and also twelve hundred and; sixty days, the same as there are in three and a half years. Those twelve hundred and sixty days must be, of course, the same as the other days in this book, each day standing for a year; and the whole meaning twelve hundred and sixty years.   

Thus far is the history of the true church to the end of the twelve hundred and sixty years. Then follows a history of the papal church for the same length of time. If we have succeeded in fixing the right time for the setting up of the little horn, viz, A. D. 538, then the twelve hundred and sixty years would bring us down to A. D. 1798, when the French took Rome.  

Verse 36. "And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every God, and shall speak

 marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done."        

It has been remarked, that after the establishment of popery, A. D. 538, the true church were called, "the people who know their God," and "they which understand among the people," etc. But the papal power is a king who does according to his will. It is the same power with the little horn of the eighth chapter, who magnified himself even to the prince of the host. In the text, he magnifies himself above every God, and speaks marvellous things against the God of gods. In the former vision, he practises and prospers. In this, he speaks against God and prospers, until the indignation, be accomplished.

The term god, in the scriptures, is sometimes used to denote civil rulers. In this sense it is evidently used in the text. The Pope of Rome magnified himself above all civil rulers, and trampled them under his feet. "Pope Paul IV," says the historian of the Council of Trent, "never spake with ambassadors, but he thundered in their ears, that he was above all princes, and that he would not that any of them should be too domestical with him, that he could exchange kingdoms, that he was successor of him who had deposed kings and emperors, and did often repeat, that he had made Ireland a kingdom. Faber on proph. p 128. But the insolence of the Pope had not stopped here. He has spoken

"marvellous things against the God of gods." That is, he has spoken against the God of the whole earth; not only kings and rulers, but the God of civil rulers. "The popes have laid claim to infallibility, an attribute which belongs only to God." "They have also blasphemously assumed even the name of God himself, and as such have received divine honors. They are not offended at being styled, our Lord God the Pope; another God upon earth; king of kings and Lord of lords; nor do they rebuke the impiety which tells them, that the same is the dominion of God and the Pope; that the power of the Pope is greater than all created power, extending to things celestial, terrestrial and infernal; that the Pope doeth whatsoever he listeth, even things unlawful, and is more than God." Faber.    


I will give another short quotation from Bishop Newton on the Prophecies. Dissertation xxii, 3. "The other divine titles by which the man of sin, the apostate bishop of Rome, suffers himself to be hailed, are, our most Holy Lord; our Lord God the Pope; his Divine Majesty; the victorious God and man in his see of Rome; Deus, optimus maximus, and Vice-God; named God by the pious emperor Constantine, and adored as such God by that emperor; the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world." It would be easy to fill pages with such names and titles ascribed to the popes of Rome; but the above must

suffice. In all this arrogance he prospered for twelve hundred and sixty years, before his power was broken and, he carried captive to France, where he died.  

Verse 37. "Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any God, for he shall magnify himself above all." The God of his heathen ancestors he will not worship nor regard. He will forbid the clergy to marry, and establish monastic institutions, both for men and women. Nor regard any God, or civil ruler. For he shall magnify himself above all.  

Verse 38. "But in his estate he shall honor the God of forces; and a God whom his fathers knew not shall he honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and precious things." Instead of "God of forces," the margin reads-"Mauzzim or God's protectors." The meaning of which is, the papal power in his estate or reign, will honor the protectors of his images of the Virgin Mary; the saints, etc. Those protectors were the monks, priests and Jesuits; on them the church of Rome has bestowed great honors. The papists have honored gods, such as their heathen ancestors never knew; such as the Virgin Mary and the whole calendar of saints. He has honored those images with ornaments of gold and silver, precious stones and pleasant things.  

Verse 39 "Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange God, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain."  

I will here introduce bishop Newton on this passage. After finding fault with the common version of the text, he gives the following translation:  

"Thus shall he do to the defenders of Mauzzim, together with the strange God whom he shall acknowledge, he shall multiply honor, and he shall cause him to rule over many, and the earth shall be divided for a reward. The defenders of Mauzzim, these saint and angel god protectors, were the monks, priests and bishops, of whom it may truly be said, they were increased with honor, ruled over many, and divided the land for gain. They have been reverenced almost to adoration; their jurisdiction was extended over the purses and consciences of men; they have been enriched with the noblest buildings and largest endowments; and the choicest lands have been appropriated for church lands. These are facts, of such public notoriety that they require no proof."  

We have now gone through with the history of papal Rome, in its civil

 character. It is true the subject receives some allusions in the twelfth chapter; but those allusions only refer to the time of its existence, and when it will fall. In the next verse altogether a new scene presents itself. New powers are raised up to fulfil the word of God; for "that which is determined shall be done." Who can but admire that wisdom which could foresee and reveal events so improbable with so much precision as that presented in this prophetic history-a history reaching from five hundred and eighty-four years before Christ down to A. D. 1798, when he who had led others into captivity was himself led into captivity, from which he never more returned.  

Verse 40. "And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him; and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over."    

Hitherto, Egypt has been the king of the south; but since the reduction of Egypt by Octavius Caesar, and the death of Cleopatra, there has been no reference to the king of Egypt. It received that appellation from the fact, that it was the south kingdom into which Alexander's was divided. But it was, at the time to which the text refers, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight years since Egypt became a Roman province, and ceased to be a horn of the he-goat. There is now, however, another power, called the south. The former kingdoms,

designated by the four points of the compass, having ceased to be horns of the goat and to be designated by those names, we must ascertain what power is now the hero of the prophecy, and then find the powers east; north, and south of him. And those must be the countries referred to in the prophecy. The history of the Pope is done; he has lost his power. Who then succeeded him? All must answer, Bonaparte. "At the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him." The time of the end means when the power of popery is broken. The scene of action is now in France. "Him" is Napoleon. "The king of the south" represents some power south of France; the king of the north some power north of France. Napoleon had already begun his career of conquest, and filled, the nations of Europe with consternation. The pope of Rome had experienced the power of his arms; and other nations trembled, lest they should share the same fate. In this state of affairs, England on the north of France, and the kings of Sardinia, Italy and Spain on the south, entered into an alliance against Napoleon. This alliance was for six years, during which England engaged to pay the king of Sardinia £200,000 per annum; to furnish an army of horse and a large fleet. The command of this fleet was given to Lord Nelson. The success of the allies in the south was various. Spain had finally to recede from the alliance, and joined the French. The king of Sardinia had to leave his   kingdom and shut himself up in the island of Sardinia. The king of Naples made a vigorous push at the French in November, 1798, and got possession of Rome, which, however, the French again very soon retook. The king of Naples then fled to the island of Sicily. Lord Nelson was successful in

 destroying the French fleet, near the mouth of the Nile, the same year. But the French, after retaking Rome, remained masters of nearly all, (except Great Britain,) which formerly belonged to the western Roman empire. Thus the French did, literally, enter the countries, overflow, and pass over.  

Verse 41. "He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon." After Napoleon's conquests in Egypt, he determined on marching into India. He made his way through Palestine into Syria. "Upon entering the Holy Land," says the historian, "Bonaparte again drove a body of Mamelukes belonging to those who, after the battle of the Pyramids in Egypt, had fled into Syria, and his army occupied, without resistance, Gaza, an ancient city of the Philistines, in which they found supplies of provisions. They next attacked Jaffa, a city of importance in the time of the crusades. This place was carried by storm. Three thousand Turks were put to the sword, and the town abandoned to the soldiery, which never assumed a shape more frightful. After the breach was made, about twelve hundred men retreated to the mosques and a sort of citadel, where they still defended themselves. But, despairing of success, they at length surrendered their arms, and were, in appearance, admitted to quarter. But a different fate awaited them. They were taken March 7th. On the 9th, they were marched out of Jaffa, divided into three companies, and put to death by the musketry. The wounded were killed by the bayonet. Their bodies were heaped together, and formed a pyramid which is visible to this day, consisting now of human bones, as then of bloody corpses."  

Soon after this, the plague broke out in the army, and swept off numbers of the French soldiers. He still continued his march into Syria, and sat down before St. Jean d'Arc. This siege was maintained with desperation on both sides. The siege continued sixty days. The besiegers had marched eight times to the assault, and the defenders had made eleven sallies upon them. On the 21st of May, 1798, the last and decisive battle, was fought, which resulted in the defeat of the French. The loss of men on both sides was immense. But retreat now became inevitable for the French. They made the best of their way back through Palestine, or the "glorious land," to Egypt, where they arrived in Cairo, June 14, with the shattered remains of their army. Thus he entered the glorious land, (Palestine,) and many,-not countries, for that word is not in the original, but is supplied by the translators, but "persons"-were overthrown. But these shall escape, etc. Edom, and Moab, and Ammon, in consequence of his defeat before Acre, escaped his hand-were not molested by him.  

Verse 42. "He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries; and the land of Egypt shall not escape." All Lower Egypt was subdued by him; and all countries felt his powerful influence.  

Verse 43. "But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.



1838 JoL, PSC 53-101